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Wednesday, August 07, 2013

Animated fishing knots-Iphone

 52 Best Fishing Knots = Most fishing knots and best value in the store. Plus 2 emergency hook removal techniques!

 Animations are a great way to learn to tie knots. The Animated Fishing Knots App makes learning to tie knots easy and fun! Each of 52 fishing knots has its own animation video, a picture of the finished knot and a description of the knot’s use.

 The following 52 best fishing knots are included (the most fishing knots of any App in the store):

 Knots for tying on tackle:
•Baja Knot
•Berkley Braid Knot
•Centauri Knot
•Davy Knot
•Drop Shot Rig
•Egg Loop
•Eye Crosser Knot (Knot Wars winner)
•Fish N Fool Knot (Knot Wars winner)
•Harvey Dry Fly
•Improved Clinch Knot
•Jansik Special
•Knotless Knot
•NanoFil Knot
•Offshore Swivel Knot
•Orvis Knot
•Palomar Knot
•Pitzen Knot
•San Diego Jam Knot
•Snell Knot Uni version
•Snell Knot Traditional version
•Trilene Knot
•Turl Knot
•Uni Knot
•World’s Fair Knot

 Knots for tying two lines together:
•Albright Special
•Blood Knot
•Double Uni Knot
•J Knot
•Nail Knot
•Seaguar Knot (Fluorocarbon to mono)
•Slim Beauty (Awesome leader knot)
•Surgeon’s Knot
•Willis Knot
•Yucatan Knot

Knots for tying loops in line:
•Bimini Twist
•Dropper Loop
•Homer Rhode Loop Knot
•King Sling
•Non Slip Loop Knot
•Perfection Loop
•Rapala Knot
•Spider Hitch
•Surgeon’s End Loop

•Arbor Knot (Tie line to reel)
•Bobber Stopper Knot
•Hook Removal (two techniques, animated)
•Knot Tyer Nail Knot
•Two Strike Indicator Knots
•Two Tenkara Knots

 - 52 carefully selected best fishing knots - Knots are listed and searchable alphabetically by name or by category and use. - Pause, and play the video with controls - Info page shows completed knot and gives information about the knot and its use.

go to;-Animated Fishing Knots

The Hook


                                                                  circle hook


Getting a Good Hook Set is a Key to Catching Fish

With the possible exception of sheepshead, setting the hook on a fish is at once both the easiest and the most misunderstood action that anglers can take. I watch anglers all the time, and I find that different anglers have different techniques even when fishing for the same fish.

Hook Types

If a fish was caught, the hook had to be set; that’s simple enough. But who set the hook? Some anglers are simply lucky enough to catch a fish because the fish itself set the hook running away from the pull of the line. In the case of circle hooks, the fish sets the hook by design. But, on standard hooks, it takes a conscious effort to set the hook on a fish that bites. More important than anything else is probably the condition of your hook. Most anglers fish with the same hook – sometimes on multiple trips. Just how sharp is that hook? It should hang on your fingernail when the point is placed there. Get a good hook sharpener and use it!

Fish Species

All fish differ in at least one aspect. Important to us here is the shape, size and relative strength of their mouths. Seatrout have a very tender mouth, and hooks can easily be pulled if too much pressure is applied. At the other end of the spectrum is the tarpon, whose boney mouth is more often than not unable to be penetrated by a hook. Flounder and fluke present yet another type of hook set. They tend to hold the bait for a short while before getting it all the way into their mouth. Hence, a delayed hook set is necessary. Billfish present an entirely different set of rules because of the way they strike a bait with their bill and then circle around to eat the bait. In between all these we have a whole variety of fish that fall into a general category I call bottom fish.

Bait Types

There is a difference in the way a fish takes, as an example, a cut bait versus a live bait. They can usually inhale a cut bait and the bite that you feel needs a quick hook set. Live bait with a single hook, on the other hand, needs to be eaten; so, the hook set needs to be delayed to enable the fish to get the entire bait into its mouth. Artificial lures need a quick hook set to prevent the fish from spitting the lure when it realizes it has been fooled.

Water Depth, Line Length and Rod Size

Most anglers fish with monofilament line. That line has a stretching quality that can be significant in deep water. If you are fishing relatively deep water (fifty feet or more), you need a longer rod with more backbone. That hook set needs to be hard and long to overcome the stretch in the line, and the longer, beefier rod can help. Braided line can help the stretch problem, but can still be affected by currents that put a bow in the line. Either way, you have to overcome the depth to set that hook.

Basic Rules

So, here are some basics you can follow and questions you can ask yourself to help you set that hook and bring a good fish to the boat or pier.

* Know the fish you are pursuing - does it have a soft mouth or a hard mouth?
* How deep are you fishing?
* What kind of line are you using?
* How about that hook - Circle or standard?
* What kind of bait are you using – can the fish get it all in one bite?

Simple rules make hook setting an easy task. These basics can help if you pay attention and react accordingly. Tight lines!

Fine Fish

Catch fish is more easy to do when you know where they. In this article on fishing tilt we would give a few your indicator to help you understand where live fish.

Fish is will were being anywhere have been water, food, oxygen, and protection. However there was different types of fish and they all gala its living in different types of water. All need they different amount of oxygen, salt, amounts of food, water temperatures different, in different areas to hide.

Salt is one feature distinctive especially for fish. Fish a few like to be where there will be many salt why whoever | do not want other people direct salt. A few certain fish has salt to survive while others many fresh water one type fish.

Contrary will become like a fish salt water such as you find within one ocean. Your ordinary fish type will find in salt water including cod, flounder, bluefish, trout, and tuna.

Oxygen is one important factor when it aware the types of fish you will find. All fish need a certain amount of oxygen to survive. Trout as example of requirement a larger amount of oxygen to survive. Wherever have been lots your tree will find higher levels of oxygen.

Fish a few needing more food to survive. Certain body of water will have more food of available other people and types of food change also. All fish need eat and the competition number for food the involving the types of fish in the particular area.

Water temperatures change and this determining type the your fish will find also. A few fish teem flexible from others and can be inside life a wide various temperatures.

Fish need other either very hot or cold water to survive. Trout for example will only can be found in cold water. If you find a certain type your fish need to learn its types of water account like before fishing in the area.

Another the human factor can be direct impact is water quality. Keep it net would be vital and good common water fish need to survive.

This is a few tips fishing of how to seek out where live fish. As you can see there were some factors including salt, oxygen, temperature, food, and the water quality really come into play.

Species of Fish


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Friday, August 02, 2013


Fishing with shrimp as live bait is a very effective way to catch fish. Almost all the popular sports fish feed on shrimp. So if you are not already using shrimps as a live bait already this article will get you started. 

 Shrimps has a lot advantages that other baits lack. Shrimps are often very easy to obtain, they are easy to keep alive and they sit well on the hook. Even though shrimps are small they draw a lot of attention to them self. When a fish approaches the shrimp will start to "kick and jump" and this movement will trigger a strike from any fish that has shrimp on the menu card.

Shrimps can be fished in many different ways. Under a cork near the surface, near the bottom using a weight or on tackles that allow the shrimp to be presented in the middle of the water.

 To fish the shrimp as live bait it is important that it is hooked the right way. If it is hooked the wrong way the shrimp wont stay alive and you will be fishing with fresh dead bait. Even though a dead shrimp can be a good bait, a live one that is kicking and jumping will normally be far more effective.

 A popular way to hook the shrimp is through the tail as showed on the image above. When hooked this way, the shrimp can stay alive for a very long time. The hook should fit the size of the shrimp and in general it is a good idea to use small hooks. The use of small hooks will present the shrimp the most natural way and the target fish wont notice that anything is wrong when taking the shrimp.

 Acquiring live shrimps. 

 The easy way is to by them if you can find a tackle shop or a fresh fish store that sells live shrimp. But in many cases shrimp can be found at the fishing spot.

The image above shows the result of simple shrimp fishing with a handheld net. I this case the net was dragged over a sand bottom on very shallow water. The shrimps rely on camouflage and you cant se any proof of life before you lift up the net and realize that both small fish and shrimps are within a nets reach.

 Often anglers aren't aware that there are plenty of live bait available and that it is easy to catch it. Many shrimps and small fish rely on camouflage and they wont start fleeing before it is already to late. The camouflage is so good that most anglers never even realize that they are literally standing in or sailing right over high quality live bait.

 The best way to catch shrimp is to get a net and drag it over the bottom. Try along stones and through seaweed and don't forget the "dull" sand bottom. It might look dull but often it is full of life.

 How to keep the shrimps 

 Shrimps are actually pretty though and there are several effective techniques that will keep them alive till you need them. One very effective way is to use a nylon stocking as a small keep net. It can be wrapped around a cup or a small jar to make some space for the shrimps. The stocking is then placed in the water as any other keep net.

 Shrimps don't have to be in water to live. The important factor is that they don't dry out. If on a boat you can keep them in a box with some seaweed. The wet seaweed will keep the bow moistened and prevent the shrimps from drying out. Drill some holes in both top and bottom and lower the box into the water once i a while to keep the shrimps wet. If the water is cold and the air is warm it is better to keep the shrimps in the water in a keep net. Sometimes the temperature will hurt the shrimps and if you are using a box try to keep it out of the sun.

 A third technique that is a bit more complicated is to cool the shrimps down. You will need a small ice cooler, ice and a newspaper. Fill the ice cooler half full of ice and place a wet newspaper section on top of the ice. Now simply place the shrimps on the newspaper and close the cooler. The shrimps will go into some kind of suspended state when cooled down this way. If kept cool they will last all day. When a shrimp is placed on a hook and put back into the water it will "wake up" and act as if it was just caught.

Okuma Makaira SEa Reels

Spooling up with braided line can be tricky, as these lines tend to slip on the arbor, no matter how tightly you wind them on the spool. But in this video, Okuma’s Brandon Cotton, using an Okuma Makaira MK-15II SEa (Special Edition) two-speed lever drag reel, explains two simple tricks that prevent slippage troubles with braided lines.

 Here’s a little bit more about Okuma’s Makaira SEa reels:

 Okuma’s Makaira SEa two-speed lever-drag reels pack all of the powerful features of the Makaira series, plus frames that have been machined out for increased clearance between the spool and crossbars. These models also have special open-spool bearings lubricated with TSI-301 oil for reduced free-spool friction and greater casting distance. The gun-metal anodized-aluminum frames offer superior corrosion resistance, and each reel carries a 5-year warranty. Sizes range from the smallest MK-8II SEa to the largest MK-50II SEa, with suggested retail prices ranges from $479.99 to $619.99.

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Successful fishing with GPS

Being able to find fish on a lake before you even put your boat in the water is key to a successful day on the water. Looking at a map and being able to read the bottom of the lake and determine the migration route the fish will follow to and from the feeding grounds and where the feeding grounds are from a map is important. This way the time you spend fishing will be in the more productive areas of the lake instead of casting blindly and hoping for something to come along.

 Remember of course that a map is worth it only if you take the time to learn to read it properly. Tackle shops often carry plastic maps but these often lack true accuracy.

 The lines represent the depth breaks with each line showing changes in depth that graduate from shore to the deepest water in the lake. You can find the break or desired depth change on a map just as you can by looking for it on the water. During warm water seasons fish will relate to a more gradual slope or break and during colder water seasons a sharper drop into deeper water will be their choice.

 Maps show you if a stream drains south or north facing watersheds or if you face meadows, rapids or waterfalls. Maps also show the easy way back to shore, the best spots to find gas, gear, etc.

 Marine Charts

 The best specialized maps are Marine Charts. These offer information about shifting shoals, sandbars and such that can be critical for boaters and productive for fishers. Do realize that marine charts change from year to year so get updates so that you don't run aground due to old charts or get lost.

 Once you've located the desired place on the map, finding the location on the water becomes the next challenge.

 The Benefits of GPS for Fishing.

 GPS technology make your fishing expeditions much more rewarding. More accurate than "line of sight" or other navigation methods, a GPS unit tells you where you are and where you're going to within a few meters. Once considered a luxury, GPS is now an essential item in the fisher's arsenal.

 A GPS is very handy and a good depth finder is useful too. Finding these places still requires some traveling time but good preplanning with a map and GPS means less wasted time. It is especially useful if you fish huge backcountry and featureless waterways.

 Combine the benefits of mapping with GPS by getting digital charts or scan in paper maps with GPS mapping software and then enter way points along your planned route.

 There are always changes to the bottom that are not on some older maps and these places can sometimes be great fishing spots. Fewer people will know of these places and thus less pressure on the fish stock there. A GPS unit can mark these fishing hot spots so that you can find it again easily.

 Sometimes fishermen will share tips on good fishing spots with their buddies and other fishermen. Giving GPS coordinates makes this easy to do.

 Finding the right fishing spot isn't the only consideration - finding your way back home again is another, and your GPS receiver lets you do that easily. It is better to enjoy the peace on the lake and see the fish are biting without worrying about the rigors of navigation. Receivers provide all the navigational information you need, including position, heading, bearing, speed, time to destination and more.

 GPS as a Safety Tool

 GPS allows you to navigate safely, even when caught in a heavy fog or other bad weather conditions. It's easy to get turned around on the open seas, but no matter what the visibility with a GPS receiver you know where you are and which way you are headed.

 In case of a 'man overboard' situation a GPS unit can mark the exact place where the event occurred greatly assisting rescue crews. GPS also allows you to easily communicate precise positions to the Coast Guard if you come across a boat in distress.

 In emergencies, swift navigation can make a big difference. GPS mapping software helps to quickly and safely navigate you to the nearest dock or port while avoiding known hazards along the way.

Saturday, July 06, 2013

PowerPro Super 8 Slick

PowerPro Super 8 Slick Smooth as Silk 8 yarn Spectra fiber construction braided under high tension to create a live surface that feels smooth as silk

 Cast like a Bullet Reduced line friction on the spool and through the rod guides allows Super 8 Slick to cast like a bullet

 Silent as Assassin Smooth surface design reduces friction and line noise, allowing you to fish with stealth and silence

 Super 8 Slick is 8 yarn Spectra fiber construction for anglers who demand high performance.

PowerPro "EBT" (Enhanced Body Technology) process creates a stronger, thinner, smoother and quieter line.

Available in 8 sizes (10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 65, 80lb) and 4 colors (Hi-Vis Yellow, Marine Blue, Timber Brown, Aqua Green

Singapore F1 GP & Malaysian Sailfish Adventure! September 20-29 2013

Ocean Blue is inviting anglers to join our annual Kuala Rompin Sailfish Adventure & Singapore Formula 1 GP event in September 2013.

 Our annual Rompin Sailfish trip is suitable for anglers of all experience levels to get amongst these light tackle, high flying speedsters. Fish with mates or join a team for a week of non stop action!

 This adventure offers anglers a great value sports fishing adventure suitable for all anglers. The fishing is during peak sailfish season and offers anglers the opportunity to enjoy this adventure with a unique Malaysian flavour. Combining this trip with a Singapore stop over for a few days is ideal for anglers travelling with friends or family, and adds further options to the adventure. We are timing this next trip directly after the Singapore F1 GP, a world class street circuit event under lights and the Singapore skyline.

The Fishing Trip

 The Sails average in size around 35kg and provide awesome action to anglers on medium tackle. The fish here are very active, aggressive and allow anglers the opportunity to target them using a variety of techniques. Casting lures, drifting baits, missing strikes and pulling hooks is all part of the fun, Rompin is certainly a destination with plenty of opportunities to refine your angling skills.

 The F1 GP takes place 20th – 22nd Sept 2013, the weekend before the fishing adventure! With its blend of historical culture and modern influences, Singapore really has something for everyone. By day you can see the sights, do some shopping or dine in any number of the city’s great restaurants. Of an evening, experience outdoor markets, incredible bars and vibrant nightlife all within close proximity of your hotel.

Friday, July 05, 2013

Deeds 'Paternoster' is suitable for apollo


How Apollo and bonding techniques used in the seabed angler?


How Apollo and bonding techniques used in the seabed angler? Shukor from Penang.


 There are several techniques used apollo bond anglers policy. One of the popular ways is the bond 'Paternoster'. Bonding techniques such as use of catgut two chains and a key leader of the young leader either the same or different sizes twisted together like the screenshot below. Key leaders must be longer than his leader. 1. Prepare the main leader and the leader like his picture. The main leader must four to five times longer than his leader. Young leaders in the foot are long over. For red fishing policies leading 100 pound leader and leader children 60 to 80 pounds. Make a loop knot simultaneously for both leaders as picture 2. Make sure the child turns to the leader over to the side of the tip to allow the tie hooks on the process later. Repeat the process to make a loop knot formed up to 3 turns. Circumference must be uniform. then pull both ends of this circumference simultaneously and evenly. Pull gently so that they form a neat and uniform circumference. Repeat the same process for the second hook. Results like the picture. We can also make apollo bait (6 hooks) with the same technique.

Appetizer crab fish oil

WE often hear about, especially baked delicious crab eggs. If you want to feel it can visit several booths Portuguese traders in the village in Bandar Hilir, Malacca. WE often hear about, especially baked delicious crab eggs. If you want to feel it can visit several booths Portuguese traders in the village in Bandar Hilir, Malacca. However, this time hints or tips not want to discuss about the blood-spotted eggs or already commercialized, but the oil it produces. Upon ditanak crab will produce black or brown. A few drops of oil that smells like tar when mixed with bran or bran wall trusted chicken aroma to whet your appetite raise catfish, rohu, river carp and carp. 's proven group of anglers when fishing in the Klang Valley in commercial ponds. Real is very effective, without the long wait this crab bait mix snatch fish oil. Crab mix bran oil is quickly stimulate the senses of fish from pandan flavoring liquid, strawberry, orange and so on. An anglers who refused to tell his name is known, the method of producing the oil quite complicated when few horseshoe crab tail ditanak in a special container to extract the oil and then added with a special recipe invention craftsmen. said the experience was very satisfying to use bait when raising about ten tails catfish in less than two hours. horseshoe oil is available at most fishing stores and sold at around RM10 to RM15 per bottle.

Skate Baits

Why? A fish’s biological imperative is to conserve energy at all costs. Potential food has to yield a certain level of caloric return to validate the energy cost of its pursuit.

 So, put a Sunday dinner spread in front of a walleye and more often that not, it’ll grab those easy calories. It’s like walleyes enter a reactionary mode at some point when confronted with giant baits where they just have to bite. This is the point when biology takes over.

 In the 1970s I discovered that walleyes (even two- to three-pound shore lunch fish) are quick to devour giant sucker minnows, waterdogs and other big forage up to a foot-long or more. Taken to its extreme, I was ordering 40-gallons of foot-long salamanders at a time from Carl Lowrance, one of the grandfathers of fishing electronics. Much to my mom’s chagrin, my brother Scott and I kept them outside in a claw-foot bathtub we’d buried in her front yard.

 But our waterdog hoarding was for good reason. We had discovered that they’re walleye-catching machines in deep weeds. And we caught some giants, though it soon became a hassle to have waterdogs shipped and trapping them locally was a headache.

 But we learned a valuable lesson during our waterdog years. Ramp up in bait size and you’ll catch walleyes, day-in-day-out.

 In the ‘80s we moved on to fishing big creek chubs and redtails. At the time, we were convinced redtails were the magic ingredient. But through countless hours on the water, we learned it had everything to do with bait size. To this day, I’ll take a giant creek chub over a medium-sized redtail.

 Walleyes As Opportunistic Feeders

 Now here’s an interesting phenomenon: Three-pound walleyes will spit out a small shiner but hold on to a giant creek chub all the way to the boat. Kind of like the way a lion sinks its claws into fallen prey to keep it from circling hyenas. It’s Animal Planet stuff: Once a big walleye drops a kill – whether it’s a coughed up shiner, young of the year fish or foot-long chub – another walleye will gobble it up. Fish, like many creatures in the animal kingdom, walleyes are opportunistic feeders.

 We discovered this valuable lesson in the turpentine-clear waters of Northern Minnesota. Many times we’d hook a walleye and it’d spit a big, half-digested fish (some giants) on its way to the boat and we’d witness a trailing fish engulf the regurgitation. Again, easy calories.

 More Than A Fluke

 I started thinking there had to be a soft plastic that would accomplish the same thing we’d discovered using live bait. Taking full advantage of the countless soft plastics on tackle shop shelves, I experimented with everything.

 It wasn’t long before I had that ‘Eureka!’ moment when I started playing with fluke-style baits so popular with bass anglers. From that first cast with a white pearl 7-inch Zoom Magnum Super Fluke rigged upside down, it was game on. But since that time I’ve also found the Northland Impulse 5-inch Jerk Minnow is also a solid bet.

 The first year I fished it from June into August and caught tons of fish. My first guess was the flukes were just that – a fluke – because that year the thermocline was just starting to set up and fish were holding at the edge of the weeds through mid-summer. So the next year I fished ‘em from ice out to ice up and discovered you could catch walleyes all year long on ‘em. I was dumbstruck.

 From a casting perspective, depths between 15 and 25 feet are typically hard to fish. I thought, wow, now finally here’s a bait that works effectively at those depths. I started positioning on deep weedlines, rocks and breaks with even deeper water access. More walleyes – and all sizes – not just big fish, but lots of quality 2-, 3- and 4-pound fish inhaling the giant soft plastics, too!

 More Than Match The Hatch

 I learned it was more than match the hatch. It wasn’t that walleyes thought they were ciscoes or smelt. Walleyes keyed in on the Magnum Flukes because of size, water displacement and speed, just like a giant creek chub. And when I say speed, it has nothing to do with the bait cadence. It has everything to do with covering water fast…something we wanted to do all along, but couldn’t accomplish with livebait.

 The other reason they proved effective is that they represent the kind of scenario walleyes are scanning for 24/7 – a free lunch of dying or wounded meat coughed up by fellow fish.

 Here’s the thing, while I experimented with lots of colors, even those that even more closely match forage patterns like shiners, herring and ciscoes, white pearl won out every time.

 Why? Solid white mimics the color of the stuff walleyes cough-up, half-digested by stomach acid and on a slow sink. And that’s why rigging the fluke upside down is so important.

 Ever watch a wounded baitfish? They kind of twitch and skate along through the water column. With the Magnum Fluke inverted, pops of the rod tip cause the bait to displace water and skate along in a way that suggests stunned, easy-to-eat prey. Besides easy visibility, white Magnum Flukes also have the kind of bulk that a walleye picks up via its lateral line from a long way away.

 In between pops of the rod tip, the bait falls in a way that perfectly mimics this dance of the dead. Hence, the presentation became known as a “skate bait,” although my brother jokingly suggested “The God-Awful.”

 While the bait looks deceptively simple, correct rigging is essential to put it to work for you.

 Rig Your Skate Bait Right

 Simply thread a Magnum Fluke upside down on a Northland 3/8- to ¾-ounce silver shiner-colored Mimic Minnow Jig Head and you can attach a Northland three-inch Sting’r Hook as insurance. Then, to make sure the plastic stays on the hook fish after fish, run a bead of Krazy Glue between the head of the jig and Fluke body.

 When it comes to rods and line, there are also a couple key components to making the skate bait system win for walleyes.

 First, the use of a quality superline like 20-pound Northland Walleye Braid or Sufix 832 on a fast-action medium-heavy spinning rod like a 7-foot medium-heavy St. Croix Legend Xtreme is a must for working this bait. The braid responds quicker at greater depths using a pop-pop-pause cadence, not unlike how you’d fish a deep-water jigging spoon. Plus, it seems to create a better and more seamless skating action.

 Also, make sure to attach a three-foot section of 30-pound premium monofilament leader to prevent the shock of the rod action and fish strikes from breaking off your bait. Although you can use a double-uni or other line-to-leader knot, I opt for the no-fail performance of a size 10 or 12 barrel swivel like the Aquateko InvisiSwivel. Attach the skate bait to the mono leader with a palomar knot.


 Skate baits have opened my eyes to the untapped potential of casting soft plastics for walleyes. It’s proven to me that paying attention to fish behavior can help anglers build presentation systems that work not only seasonally, but throughout the entire open-water calendar.

 Without a shadow of doubt, skate baits and jerk minnow-type baits have proven to me that walleyes will consistently take advantage of a big, free meal, especially something that looks dying or wounded. And, when it comes to size, if you think you’re fishing something too big, well, you’re probably on the right track. Just talk to a few muskie fishermen about when, where and how often they catch walleyes on giant baits!

 Over the years, I guess you could say the proof is in the livewell … or at least a lot of photographs.

 My next experiment? You got it – ramping up to even bigger soft plastics for skate baiting!

Great Grouper Migrations

Anglers tend to think of groupers as homebodies — spending their lives in some specific wrecks or reefs they call home. That’s often a fairly accurate portrayal. But what many anglers probably don’t realize is that most species of grouper are known to migrate long distances to spawn.

 Both gag grouper (Mycteroperca microlepis) and Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) are known to migrate hundreds of miles. Goliath grouper (E. itajara) have been shown to migrate as far as 95 miles to a spawning site.

 What’s more, beyond such surprising distances, are the masses of migrating grouper forming spawning aggregations that can number in the thousands, though the number involved in aggregations varies by species.

 For example, Goliath grouper form relatively small spawning groups consisting of 10 to 100 individuals, while tens of thousands of Nassau grouper might be present in a single aggregation. Of all groupers, only the red (E. morio) is known to spawn without forming aggregations.

 The locations where spawning aggregations occur can be quite consistent from year to year. Some 60 to 80 spawning-aggregation sites have been identified for Nassau grouper, and a given site might be used repeatedly for at least 50 years.

 The times at which migrations and spawning aggregations occur are quite predictable. For example, Nassau grouper aggregate during November and December, and peak spawning occurs two days after the full moon during this period. Gag grouper have longer spawning seasons than Nassaus; members of this species normally aggregate and spawn from January through April. Red hind (E. guttatus) form spawning aggregations in the U.S. Virgin Islands around the winter solstice (the shortest day of the year, between December 20th and 23rd), and peak spawning occurs 20 to 40 days following the solstice.

 Although spawning aggregations help ensure the reproductive success of groupers, they can also leave groupers vulnerable to overexploitation by fishing. For example, the Nassau grouper was once quite common throughout much of its range; it was classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 2003. At that time, the IUCN estimated that the number of Nassau grouper had declined by 60 percent over the past 27 to 30 years. The population of Nassau grouper along the East Coast of the United States is now so low that this species cannot lawfully be harvested by any means.

 Dr. Ray Waldner is a professor of fisheries biology at Florida's Palm Beach Atlantic University. He's also a longstanding Sport Fishing Fish Facts expert.
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